Do you know the networking cabling standard?

networking cabling

The main points of the integrated wiring standard are as follows.

1. Purpose

1) Standardize a common telecom wiring standard for voice and data transmission to support a multi-device and multi-user environment.

2) Thank you for the design of telecommunication equipment and wiring products that serve the industries of **, education, national defense, transportation and energy, electronics, construction, communications, and finance.

3) Able to plan and install structured wiring in commercial buildings, so that it can meet the various requirements of users.

4) Establish performance and technical standards for the design and installation of various types of cables, connectors and wiring systems.

2. Area

(1) The scope of application, for example, the standard is aimed at “commercial office” telecommunication systems or residential telecommunication systems.

(2) Life, the service life of the wiring system is generally required to be more than 10 years.

3. Standard 

The standard content is the medium used, topology, wiring distance, user interface, cable specifications, connector performance, and installation procedures, etc.

The integrated wiring system standard is an open system standard with a wide range of applications. Therefore, wiring according to the integrated wiring system can provide convenience for the user’s future application, and also protect the user’s investment, so that the user can invest less in the cost and transfer to a higher level of application.

2. Matters needing attention in the design of integrated wiring system

1. Work area subsystem design

The design of the workspace subsystem is mainly the design of user information sockets (including data points and voice points). The information sockets of the subsystem are standard RJ45 sockets and RJ11 sockets, etc., which are compatible with the national standard 86 embedded box, and can be installed on the wall, on the ground, on the table, on the soft foundation, etc. according to the actual situation. There are two types of sockets, single and double holes.

Each information point (ie socket) has an obvious and clear label. Make the management and maintenance of the system transparent and simple, in addition to supporting direct or existing services, it must also comply with the currently defined ISDN (Integrated Data Service Network) interface standard.

The information socket is installed in an embedded manner, and the information socket on the wall is installed at a distance of 30cm from the ground. The information socket on the partition is installed according to the site conditions, and the information socket on the ground uses a ground socket. At the same time, it is more than 15cm away from the power socket.

Pay attention to the following points when designing the subsystem of the workspace:

1) The connection from the RJ45 socket to the equipment uses a twisted pair cable, generally no longer than 5m.

2) The RJ45 socket must be installed on the wall or in a place that is not easy to touch, and the socket is more than 30cm away from the ground.

3) Do not connect the wrong wire ends to the socket and plug.

2. Horizontal subsystem design

The horizontal area subsystem is composed of cables from the wiring closets of each layer to the work areas. Data transmission cables are recommended to use Category 6 four pairs of unshielded twisted pairs, supporting a transmission rate of 250 Mbps; for voice transmission cables, Category 5 unshielded twisted pairs are recommended.

The longest length of the horizontal cable in the design is not more than 90 meters, and the mechanical length of fewer than 10 meters is guaranteed to be allocated to the working area cables, patch cords, jumpers, and equipment cables.

Pay attention to the following points when designing:

1) The wires for the horizontal trunk line subsystem are generally twisted-pair wires.

2) The length generally does not exceed 90m.

3) Cables must be routed in a trough or in the ceiling, try not to go in a ground trough.

4) The transmission rate of Category 3 twisted pair is 16Mbps, and the transmission rate of Category 5 twisted pair is 100Mbps.

5) Determine the medium wiring method and the direction of the cable.

6) Calculate the cable length required in the horizontal zone.

3. Vertical subsystem design

The total number of cable pairs and the total number of optical fiber cores required by the trunk line subsystem should meet the actual needs of the project, and appropriate backup capacity should be reserved. The backbone cable should be set up with cables and optical cables, and they should be used as backup routes for each other.

One weak current tube well is reserved on each floor of the building. In the weak current well of each floor, a rectangular ground hole for installing the vertical cable tray for laying optical fibers and large-pair cables is reserved. The location of the weak current well opening is set near the wall supporting the bridge But it does not hinder the place where the jumper is terminated.

The location of the weak current shaft should also be located in the physical center of the building plan as much as possible to reduce the amount of horizontal cables. The communication complex has a larger area. The strong and weak current share a weak current shaft. The partition management and area basically meet the requirements of use.

Pay attention to the following issues when designing:

1) Optical cables are generally used for vertical trunk line subsystems to increase the transmission rate.

2) The optical cable can be a multi-mode optical fiber or a single-mode (indoor) optical fiber.

3) The corners of the vertical trunk optical cable should not be turned at right angles, and there should be a considerable arc to prevent the optical cable from being damaged.

4) The vertical trunk line should be protected from damage (such as buried under the road, digging and repairing the road will cause harm to the cable and cable), and the overhead cable should be protected from lightning.

5) Determine the trunk line requirements and lightning protection facilities for each floor.

6) Meet the requirements of the trunk line of the entire building and lightning protection facilities.

4. Subsystem design of equipment room

The equipment room is a space that serves for the jumper and wiring management of the horizontal wiring and the vertical backbone. In addition to the wiring equipment that terminates the vertical and horizontal cables, it also includes jumpers. According to the design specifications of the integrated wiring system, the equipment room is best located in the physical center of the entire building, so that the overall network will be more balanced, and the number of backbone cables can be reasonably reduced.

The equipment room is equipped with equipment such as wiring equipment, equipment cabinets, jumpers, and other equipment that terminate vertical and horizontal cables.

Cabinet: Since most of the network equipment is 19-inch standard equipment, in order to facilitate maintenance and management, you can choose a 2m (42U), 19-inch vertical cabinet.

Copper cable distribution frame: choose a cross-connect distribution frame (110DW type) for the distribution frame of the voice trunk cable; in order to facilitate the jump connection with the network equipment, select the six types of modular copper distribution frame to connect all the data horizontal lines cable.

Optical fiber distribution frame: In order to fit the 19-inch standard installation method, choose a 19-inch optical fiber distribution frame in the equipment room to connect indoor single-mode optical fibers.

The main points to note when designing are:

1) There should be enough space in the equipment room to ensure the storage of the equipment.

2) The equipment room must have a good working environment (temperature and humidity).

3) The construction standard of the equipment room should be designed according to the construction standard of the computer room.

In actual implementation, the equipment room is usually combined with the main wiring room.

5. Management room subsystem design

The management area includes interconnection, interconnection, and information points. The management point provides a means to connect with other subsystems, and it is possible to arrange or re-arrange lines for cross-connection. Therefore, the communication line can continue to various locations inside the building, thereby realizing the management of the communication line. The corresponding jumper frame is selected to control the direction of the jumper, a large number of jumpers become orderly, and the wiring room appears tidy and orderly.

Pay attention to the following points when designing:

1) The number of wiring pairs of the patch panel can be determined by the number of information points managed.

2) Using the jumper function of the patch panel, the wiring system can be flexible and multi-functional.

3) Distribution frame is generally composed of an optical distribution box and a copper distribution frame.

4) The management room subsystem should have enough space for patch panels and network equipment (hubs, switches, etc.).

5) Where there are hubs and switches, special stabilized power supplies should be provided.

6) Maintain a certain temperature and humidity, and maintain the equipment.

6. Design of building group subsystem

In the building group subsystem, data transmission is generally connected to each building by optical fiber, so that the main body bandwidth can reach gigabit, reducing investment for future system upgrades.

After the optical cable enters the central node of each building, a splicing box and coupler are installed for splicing. A rack-mounted splice box can be installed in the network center. After the optical cable wiring and splicing are completed, it needs to be tested. The test is divided into two steps. The first step is to test whether the circuit is unblocked and whether there is an open circuit or a short circuit; the second step is to perform a performance test, that is, its transmission rate and attenuation Rate and loss are tested.

When designing the building group subsystem, it is necessary to fully consider the entire wiring system and the surrounding environment, determine the transmission medium and routing between buildings, and make the line length comply with the relevant network standards.

7. Subsystem design of the incoming room

One building should be installed in the incoming line room, which is generally located in the underground. The external line should be led into the incoming line room from two different routes, which is conducive to communication with the external pipeline. The inlet room and the manhole or hand hole in the infrared range of the building are interconnected by pipes or channels.

When outdoor cables such as backbone cables and optical cables, public and private network cables, optical cables, and antenna feeders enter the building, they should be converted into indoor cables and optical cables at the end of the incoming room, and they can be multi-functional at the end of the cable. The domestic telecommunications business operator sets up entrance facilities, and the wiring equipment in the entrance facilities should be configured according to the capacity of the incoming electric and optical cables.

The entry wiring equipment installed in the entry room by the telecommunications business operator should lay the corresponding connecting cables and optical cables between the BD or CD to realize the routing intercommunication. The cable-type and capacity should be consistent with the wiring equipment.

8. System design level

In the engineering design of intelligent buildings and intelligent building parks, the appropriate type of integrated wiring system should be selected according to actual needs. Generally, the following three different types of wiring systems should be selected:

l Basic integrated wiring system.

l Enhanced integrated wiring system.

l Comprehensive integrated wiring system.

8.1, basic type

It is suitable for occasions with lower configuration standards in the integrated wiring system and uses copper core twisted-pair cables for networking. The specific configuration is as follows.

(1) Each work area has an information socket;

(2) The wire distribution cable in each working area is a 4-pair twisted pair;

(3) Use clip-on handover hardware;

(4) The trunk cable in each work area has at least 2 pairs of twisted pairs.

Most basic integrated wiring systems can support voice/data functions, and their characteristics are:

(1) It is a comprehensive wiring scheme with competitive price, which can support all voice and data applications;

(2) Applied to voice, voice/data, or high-speed data;

(3) It is convenient for technical personnel to manage;

(4) Adopt gas discharge tube type overvoltage protection and self-recoverable transition protection;

(5) It can support data transmission of multiple computer systems.

8.2, enhanced

It is suitable for occasions with medium configuration standards in the integrated wiring system, and the copper core is used to compare the cable network. The specific configuration is as follows:

(1) Each work area has two or more information outlets;

(2) The wiring cables in each work area are two 4-pair twisted-pair cables;

(3) Use value-added connection or plug-in handover hardware;

(4) There are at least 3 pairs of twisted pairs in the trunk cable of each work area.

The characteristics of the enhanced integrated wiring system are as follows:

(1) There are two information sockets in each work area, which are not only flexible but also fully functional;

(2) Any information socket can provide voice and high-speed data applications;

(3) The color code can be unified, and the terminal board can be used for management as needed;

(4) It is a cost-effective integrated wiring scheme that can serve the environment of multiple data equipment manufacturing departments;

(5) Adopt gas discharge tube type overvoltage protection and self-recoverable overcurrent protection.

8.3. Comprehensive

It is suitable for occasions with higher configuration standards in the integrated wiring system and uses optical cables and copper core twisted-pair cables for mixed networking. Its configuration should add an optical cable system on the basis of a basic and enhanced integrated wiring system.

The main feature of the integrated wiring system is the introduction of optical cables, which can be applied to large-scale intelligent buildings, and the remaining features are the same as the basic or enhanced type.